FFmpeg
transcoding.c
/*
* Copyright (c) 2010 Nicolas George
* Copyright (c) 2011 Stefano Sabatini
* Copyright (c) 2014 Andrey Utkin
*
* Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
* of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
* in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
* to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
* copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
* furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
*
* The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
* all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
*
* THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
* IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
* FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL
* THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
* LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
* OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
* THE SOFTWARE.
*/
/**
* @file
* API example for demuxing, decoding, filtering, encoding and muxing
* @example transcoding.c
*/
#include <libavutil/opt.h>
typedef struct FilteringContext {
typedef struct StreamContext {
AVCodecContext *enc_ctx;
static int open_input_file(const char *filename)
{
int ret;
unsigned int i;
ifmt_ctx = NULL;
if ((ret = avformat_open_input(&ifmt_ctx, filename, NULL, NULL)) < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Cannot open input file\n");
return ret;
}
if ((ret = avformat_find_stream_info(ifmt_ctx, NULL)) < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Cannot find stream information\n");
return ret;
}
stream_ctx = av_mallocz_array(ifmt_ctx->nb_streams, sizeof(*stream_ctx));
if (!stream_ctx)
return AVERROR(ENOMEM);
for (i = 0; i < ifmt_ctx->nb_streams; i++) {
AVStream *stream = ifmt_ctx->streams[i];
AVCodecContext *codec_ctx;
if (!dec) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Failed to find decoder for stream #%u\n", i);
}
codec_ctx = avcodec_alloc_context3(dec);
if (!codec_ctx) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Failed to allocate the decoder context for stream #%u\n", i);
return AVERROR(ENOMEM);
}
ret = avcodec_parameters_to_context(codec_ctx, stream->codecpar);
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Failed to copy decoder parameters to input decoder context "
"for stream #%u\n", i);
return ret;
}
/* Reencode video & audio and remux subtitles etc. */
if (codec_ctx->codec_type == AVMEDIA_TYPE_VIDEO
|| codec_ctx->codec_type == AVMEDIA_TYPE_AUDIO) {
if (codec_ctx->codec_type == AVMEDIA_TYPE_VIDEO)
codec_ctx->framerate = av_guess_frame_rate(ifmt_ctx, stream, NULL);
/* Open decoder */
ret = avcodec_open2(codec_ctx, dec, NULL);
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Failed to open decoder for stream #%u\n", i);
return ret;
}
}
stream_ctx[i].dec_ctx = codec_ctx;
}
av_dump_format(ifmt_ctx, 0, filename, 0);
return 0;
}
static int open_output_file(const char *filename)
{
AVStream *out_stream;
AVStream *in_stream;
AVCodecContext *dec_ctx, *enc_ctx;
AVCodec *encoder;
int ret;
unsigned int i;
ofmt_ctx = NULL;
avformat_alloc_output_context2(&ofmt_ctx, NULL, NULL, filename);
if (!ofmt_ctx) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Could not create output context\n");
}
for (i = 0; i < ifmt_ctx->nb_streams; i++) {
out_stream = avformat_new_stream(ofmt_ctx, NULL);
if (!out_stream) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Failed allocating output stream\n");
}
in_stream = ifmt_ctx->streams[i];
dec_ctx = stream_ctx[i].dec_ctx;
|| dec_ctx->codec_type == AVMEDIA_TYPE_AUDIO) {
/* in this example, we choose transcoding to same codec */
encoder = avcodec_find_encoder(dec_ctx->codec_id);
if (!encoder) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_FATAL, "Necessary encoder not found\n");
}
enc_ctx = avcodec_alloc_context3(encoder);
if (!enc_ctx) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_FATAL, "Failed to allocate the encoder context\n");
return AVERROR(ENOMEM);
}
/* In this example, we transcode to same properties (picture size,
* sample rate etc.). These properties can be changed for output
* streams easily using filters */
if (dec_ctx->codec_type == AVMEDIA_TYPE_VIDEO) {
enc_ctx->height = dec_ctx->height;
enc_ctx->width = dec_ctx->width;
/* take first format from list of supported formats */
if (encoder->pix_fmts)
enc_ctx->pix_fmt = encoder->pix_fmts[0];
else
enc_ctx->pix_fmt = dec_ctx->pix_fmt;
/* video time_base can be set to whatever is handy and supported by encoder */
enc_ctx->time_base = av_inv_q(dec_ctx->framerate);
} else {
enc_ctx->sample_rate = dec_ctx->sample_rate;
enc_ctx->channel_layout = dec_ctx->channel_layout;
/* take first format from list of supported formats */
enc_ctx->sample_fmt = encoder->sample_fmts[0];
enc_ctx->time_base = (AVRational){1, enc_ctx->sample_rate};
}
if (ofmt_ctx->oformat->flags & AVFMT_GLOBALHEADER)
/* Third parameter can be used to pass settings to encoder */
ret = avcodec_open2(enc_ctx, encoder, NULL);
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Cannot open video encoder for stream #%u\n", i);
return ret;
}
ret = avcodec_parameters_from_context(out_stream->codecpar, enc_ctx);
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Failed to copy encoder parameters to output stream #%u\n", i);
return ret;
}
out_stream->time_base = enc_ctx->time_base;
stream_ctx[i].enc_ctx = enc_ctx;
} else if (dec_ctx->codec_type == AVMEDIA_TYPE_UNKNOWN) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_FATAL, "Elementary stream #%d is of unknown type, cannot proceed\n", i);
} else {
/* if this stream must be remuxed */
ret = avcodec_parameters_copy(out_stream->codecpar, in_stream->codecpar);
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Copying parameters for stream #%u failed\n", i);
return ret;
}
out_stream->time_base = in_stream->time_base;
}
}
av_dump_format(ofmt_ctx, 0, filename, 1);
if (!(ofmt_ctx->oformat->flags & AVFMT_NOFILE)) {
ret = avio_open(&ofmt_ctx->pb, filename, AVIO_FLAG_WRITE);
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Could not open output file '%s'", filename);
return ret;
}
}
/* init muxer, write output file header */
ret = avformat_write_header(ofmt_ctx, NULL);
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Error occurred when opening output file\n");
return ret;
}
return 0;
}
AVCodecContext *enc_ctx, const char *filter_spec)
{
char args[512];
int ret = 0;
const AVFilter *buffersrc = NULL;
const AVFilter *buffersink = NULL;
if (!outputs || !inputs || !filter_graph) {
ret = AVERROR(ENOMEM);
goto end;
}
if (dec_ctx->codec_type == AVMEDIA_TYPE_VIDEO) {
buffersrc = avfilter_get_by_name("buffer");
buffersink = avfilter_get_by_name("buffersink");
if (!buffersrc || !buffersink) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "filtering source or sink element not found\n");
goto end;
}
snprintf(args, sizeof(args),
"video_size=%dx%d:pix_fmt=%d:time_base=%d/%d:pixel_aspect=%d/%d",
dec_ctx->width, dec_ctx->height, dec_ctx->pix_fmt,
dec_ctx->time_base.num, dec_ctx->time_base.den,
ret = avfilter_graph_create_filter(&buffersrc_ctx, buffersrc, "in",
args, NULL, filter_graph);
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Cannot create buffer source\n");
goto end;
}
ret = avfilter_graph_create_filter(&buffersink_ctx, buffersink, "out",
NULL, NULL, filter_graph);
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Cannot create buffer sink\n");
goto end;
}
ret = av_opt_set_bin(buffersink_ctx, "pix_fmts",
(uint8_t*)&enc_ctx->pix_fmt, sizeof(enc_ctx->pix_fmt),
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Cannot set output pixel format\n");
goto end;
}
} else if (dec_ctx->codec_type == AVMEDIA_TYPE_AUDIO) {
buffersrc = avfilter_get_by_name("abuffer");
buffersink = avfilter_get_by_name("abuffersink");
if (!buffersrc || !buffersink) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "filtering source or sink element not found\n");
goto end;
}
if (!dec_ctx->channel_layout)
dec_ctx->channel_layout =
snprintf(args, sizeof(args),
"time_base=%d/%d:sample_rate=%d:sample_fmt=%s:channel_layout=0x%"PRIx64,
dec_ctx->time_base.num, dec_ctx->time_base.den, dec_ctx->sample_rate,
dec_ctx->channel_layout);
ret = avfilter_graph_create_filter(&buffersrc_ctx, buffersrc, "in",
args, NULL, filter_graph);
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Cannot create audio buffer source\n");
goto end;
}
ret = avfilter_graph_create_filter(&buffersink_ctx, buffersink, "out",
NULL, NULL, filter_graph);
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Cannot create audio buffer sink\n");
goto end;
}
ret = av_opt_set_bin(buffersink_ctx, "sample_fmts",
(uint8_t*)&enc_ctx->sample_fmt, sizeof(enc_ctx->sample_fmt),
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Cannot set output sample format\n");
goto end;
}
ret = av_opt_set_bin(buffersink_ctx, "channel_layouts",
(uint8_t*)&enc_ctx->channel_layout,
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Cannot set output channel layout\n");
goto end;
}
ret = av_opt_set_bin(buffersink_ctx, "sample_rates",
(uint8_t*)&enc_ctx->sample_rate, sizeof(enc_ctx->sample_rate),
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Cannot set output sample rate\n");
goto end;
}
} else {
goto end;
}
/* Endpoints for the filter graph. */
outputs->name = av_strdup("in");
outputs->pad_idx = 0;
outputs->next = NULL;
inputs->name = av_strdup("out");
inputs->pad_idx = 0;
inputs->next = NULL;
if (!outputs->name || !inputs->name) {
ret = AVERROR(ENOMEM);
goto end;
}
if ((ret = avfilter_graph_parse_ptr(filter_graph, filter_spec,
&inputs, &outputs, NULL)) < 0)
goto end;
if ((ret = avfilter_graph_config(filter_graph, NULL)) < 0)
goto end;
/* Fill FilteringContext */
return ret;
}
static int init_filters(void)
{
const char *filter_spec;
unsigned int i;
int ret;
filter_ctx = av_malloc_array(ifmt_ctx->nb_streams, sizeof(*filter_ctx));
if (!filter_ctx)
return AVERROR(ENOMEM);
for (i = 0; i < ifmt_ctx->nb_streams; i++) {
filter_ctx[i].buffersrc_ctx = NULL;
filter_ctx[i].buffersink_ctx = NULL;
filter_ctx[i].filter_graph = NULL;
continue;
filter_spec = "null"; /* passthrough (dummy) filter for video */
else
filter_spec = "anull"; /* passthrough (dummy) filter for audio */
ret = init_filter(&filter_ctx[i], stream_ctx[i].dec_ctx,
stream_ctx[i].enc_ctx, filter_spec);
if (ret)
return ret;
}
return 0;
}
static int encode_write_frame(AVFrame *filt_frame, unsigned int stream_index, int *got_frame) {
int ret;
int got_frame_local;
AVPacket enc_pkt;
int (*enc_func)(AVCodecContext *, AVPacket *, const AVFrame *, int *) =
(ifmt_ctx->streams[stream_index]->codecpar->codec_type ==
if (!got_frame)
got_frame = &got_frame_local;
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_INFO, "Encoding frame\n");
/* encode filtered frame */
enc_pkt.data = NULL;
enc_pkt.size = 0;
av_init_packet(&enc_pkt);
ret = enc_func(stream_ctx[stream_index].enc_ctx, &enc_pkt,
filt_frame, got_frame);
av_frame_free(&filt_frame);
if (ret < 0)
return ret;
if (!(*got_frame))
return 0;
/* prepare packet for muxing */
enc_pkt.stream_index = stream_index;
stream_ctx[stream_index].enc_ctx->time_base,
ofmt_ctx->streams[stream_index]->time_base);
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_DEBUG, "Muxing frame\n");
/* mux encoded frame */
ret = av_interleaved_write_frame(ofmt_ctx, &enc_pkt);
return ret;
}
static int filter_encode_write_frame(AVFrame *frame, unsigned int stream_index)
{
int ret;
AVFrame *filt_frame;
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_INFO, "Pushing decoded frame to filters\n");
/* push the decoded frame into the filtergraph */
ret = av_buffersrc_add_frame_flags(filter_ctx[stream_index].buffersrc_ctx,
frame, 0);
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Error while feeding the filtergraph\n");
return ret;
}
/* pull filtered frames from the filtergraph */
while (1) {
filt_frame = av_frame_alloc();
if (!filt_frame) {
ret = AVERROR(ENOMEM);
break;
}
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_INFO, "Pulling filtered frame from filters\n");
ret = av_buffersink_get_frame(filter_ctx[stream_index].buffersink_ctx,
filt_frame);
if (ret < 0) {
/* if no more frames for output - returns AVERROR(EAGAIN)
* if flushed and no more frames for output - returns AVERROR_EOF
* rewrite retcode to 0 to show it as normal procedure completion
*/
if (ret == AVERROR(EAGAIN) || ret == AVERROR_EOF)
ret = 0;
av_frame_free(&filt_frame);
break;
}
ret = encode_write_frame(filt_frame, stream_index, NULL);
if (ret < 0)
break;
}
return ret;
}
static int flush_encoder(unsigned int stream_index)
{
int ret;
int got_frame;
if (!(stream_ctx[stream_index].enc_ctx->codec->capabilities &
return 0;
while (1) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_INFO, "Flushing stream #%u encoder\n", stream_index);
ret = encode_write_frame(NULL, stream_index, &got_frame);
if (ret < 0)
break;
if (!got_frame)
return 0;
}
return ret;
}
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
int ret;
AVPacket packet = { .data = NULL, .size = 0 };
AVFrame *frame = NULL;
unsigned int stream_index;
unsigned int i;
int got_frame;
int (*dec_func)(AVCodecContext *, AVFrame *, int *, const AVPacket *);
if (argc != 3) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Usage: %s <input file> <output file>\n", argv[0]);
return 1;
}
if ((ret = open_input_file(argv[1])) < 0)
goto end;
if ((ret = open_output_file(argv[2])) < 0)
goto end;
if ((ret = init_filters()) < 0)
goto end;
/* read all packets */
while (1) {
if ((ret = av_read_frame(ifmt_ctx, &packet)) < 0)
break;
stream_index = packet.stream_index;
type = ifmt_ctx->streams[packet.stream_index]->codecpar->codec_type;
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_DEBUG, "Demuxer gave frame of stream_index %u\n",
stream_index);
if (filter_ctx[stream_index].filter_graph) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_DEBUG, "Going to reencode&filter the frame\n");
frame = av_frame_alloc();
if (!frame) {
ret = AVERROR(ENOMEM);
break;
}
ifmt_ctx->streams[stream_index]->time_base,
stream_ctx[stream_index].dec_ctx->time_base);
dec_func = (type == AVMEDIA_TYPE_VIDEO) ? avcodec_decode_video2 :
ret = dec_func(stream_ctx[stream_index].dec_ctx, frame,
&got_frame, &packet);
if (ret < 0) {
av_frame_free(&frame);
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Decoding failed\n");
break;
}
if (got_frame) {
frame->pts = frame->best_effort_timestamp;
ret = filter_encode_write_frame(frame, stream_index);
av_frame_free(&frame);
if (ret < 0)
goto end;
} else {
av_frame_free(&frame);
}
} else {
/* remux this frame without reencoding */
ifmt_ctx->streams[stream_index]->time_base,
ofmt_ctx->streams[stream_index]->time_base);
ret = av_interleaved_write_frame(ofmt_ctx, &packet);
if (ret < 0)
goto end;
}
av_packet_unref(&packet);
}
/* flush filters and encoders */
for (i = 0; i < ifmt_ctx->nb_streams; i++) {
/* flush filter */
if (!filter_ctx[i].filter_graph)
continue;
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Flushing filter failed\n");
goto end;
}
/* flush encoder */
ret = flush_encoder(i);
if (ret < 0) {
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Flushing encoder failed\n");
goto end;
}
}
av_write_trailer(ofmt_ctx);
av_packet_unref(&packet);
av_frame_free(&frame);
for (i = 0; i < ifmt_ctx->nb_streams; i++) {
avcodec_free_context(&stream_ctx[i].dec_ctx);
if (ofmt_ctx && ofmt_ctx->nb_streams > i && ofmt_ctx->streams[i] && stream_ctx[i].enc_ctx)
avcodec_free_context(&stream_ctx[i].enc_ctx);
if (filter_ctx && filter_ctx[i].filter_graph)
avfilter_graph_free(&filter_ctx[i].filter_graph);
}
av_free(filter_ctx);
av_free(stream_ctx);
if (ofmt_ctx && !(ofmt_ctx->oformat->flags & AVFMT_NOFILE))
avio_closep(&ofmt_ctx->pb);
if (ret < 0)
av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR, "Error occurred: %s\n", av_err2str(ret));
return ret ? 1 : 0;
}