FFmpeg
internal.h
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1 /*
2  * This file is part of FFmpeg.
3  *
4  * FFmpeg is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
5  * modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
6  * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
7  * version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
8  *
9  * FFmpeg is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
10  * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
11  * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
12  * Lesser General Public License for more details.
13  *
14  * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
15  * License along with FFmpeg; if not, write to the Free Software
16  * Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
17  */
18 
19 #ifndef AVFILTER_INTERNAL_H
20 #define AVFILTER_INTERNAL_H
21 
22 /**
23  * @file
24  * internal API functions
25  */
26 
27 #include "libavutil/internal.h"
28 #include "avfilter.h"
29 #include "formats.h"
30 #include "framequeue.h"
31 #include "version.h"
32 #include "video.h"
33 
34 typedef struct AVFilterCommand {
35  double time; ///< time expressed in seconds
36  char *command; ///< command
37  char *arg; ///< optional argument for the command
38  int flags;
41 
42 /**
43  * Update the position of a link in the age heap.
44  */
46 
47 /**
48  * A filter pad used for either input or output.
49  */
50 struct AVFilterPad {
51  /**
52  * Pad name. The name is unique among inputs and among outputs, but an
53  * input may have the same name as an output. This may be NULL if this
54  * pad has no need to ever be referenced by name.
55  */
56  const char *name;
57 
58  /**
59  * AVFilterPad type.
60  */
62 
63  /**
64  * The filter expects writable frames from its input link,
65  * duplicating data buffers if needed.
66  *
67  * input pads only.
68  */
69 #define AVFILTERPAD_FLAG_NEEDS_WRITABLE (1 << 0)
70 
71  /**
72  * The pad's name is allocated and should be freed generically.
73  */
74 #define AVFILTERPAD_FLAG_FREE_NAME (1 << 1)
75 
76  /**
77  * A combination of AVFILTERPAD_FLAG_* flags.
78  */
79  int flags;
80 
81  /**
82  * Callback functions to get a video/audio buffers. If NULL,
83  * the filter system will use ff_default_get_video_buffer() for video
84  * and ff_default_get_audio_buffer() for audio.
85  *
86  * The state of the union is determined by type.
87  *
88  * Input pads only.
89  */
90  union {
91  AVFrame *(*video)(AVFilterLink *link, int w, int h);
92  AVFrame *(*audio)(AVFilterLink *link, int nb_samples);
93  } get_buffer;
94 
95  /**
96  * Filtering callback. This is where a filter receives a frame with
97  * audio/video data and should do its processing.
98  *
99  * Input pads only.
100  *
101  * @return >= 0 on success, a negative AVERROR on error. This function
102  * must ensure that frame is properly unreferenced on error if it
103  * hasn't been passed on to another filter.
104  */
106 
107  /**
108  * Frame request callback. A call to this should result in some progress
109  * towards producing output over the given link. This should return zero
110  * on success, and another value on error.
111  *
112  * Output pads only.
113  */
115 
116  /**
117  * Link configuration callback.
118  *
119  * For output pads, this should set the link properties such as
120  * width/height. This should NOT set the format property - that is
121  * negotiated between filters by the filter system using the
122  * query_formats() callback before this function is called.
123  *
124  * For input pads, this should check the properties of the link, and update
125  * the filter's internal state as necessary.
126  *
127  * For both input and output filters, this should return zero on success,
128  * and another value on error.
129  */
131 };
132 
134  void *thread;
137 };
138 
141 };
142 
144  void *arg, int *ret, int nb_jobs)
145 {
146  return ctx->internal->execute(ctx, func, arg, ret, nb_jobs);
147 }
148 
150  /**
151  * The default value meaning that this filter supports all formats
152  * and (for audio) sample rates and channel layouts/counts as long
153  * as these properties agree for all inputs and outputs.
154  * This state is only allowed in case all inputs and outputs actually
155  * have the same type.
156  * The union is unused in this state.
157  *
158  * This value must always be zero (for default static initialization).
159  */
161  FF_FILTER_FORMATS_QUERY_FUNC, ///< formats.query active.
162  FF_FILTER_FORMATS_PIXFMT_LIST, ///< formats.pixels_list active.
163  FF_FILTER_FORMATS_SAMPLEFMTS_LIST, ///< formats.samples_list active.
164  FF_FILTER_FORMATS_SINGLE_PIXFMT, ///< formats.pix_fmt active
165  FF_FILTER_FORMATS_SINGLE_SAMPLEFMT, ///< formats.sample_fmt active.
166 };
167 
168 #define FILTER_QUERY_FUNC(func) \
169  .formats.query_func = func, \
170  .formats_state = FF_FILTER_FORMATS_QUERY_FUNC
171 #define FILTER_PIXFMTS_ARRAY(array) \
172  .formats.pixels_list = array, \
173  .formats_state = FF_FILTER_FORMATS_PIXFMT_LIST
174 #define FILTER_SAMPLEFMTS_ARRAY(array) \
175  .formats.samples_list = array, \
176  .formats_state = FF_FILTER_FORMATS_SAMPLEFMTS_LIST
177 #define FILTER_PIXFMTS(...) \
178  FILTER_PIXFMTS_ARRAY(((const enum AVPixelFormat []) { __VA_ARGS__, AV_PIX_FMT_NONE }))
179 #define FILTER_SAMPLEFMTS(...) \
180  FILTER_SAMPLEFMTS_ARRAY(((const enum AVSampleFormat[]) { __VA_ARGS__, AV_SAMPLE_FMT_NONE }))
181 #define FILTER_SINGLE_PIXFMT(pix_fmt_) \
182  .formats.pix_fmt = pix_fmt_, \
183  .formats_state = FF_FILTER_FORMATS_SINGLE_PIXFMT
184 #define FILTER_SINGLE_SAMPLEFMT(sample_fmt_) \
185  .formats.sample_fmt = sample_fmt_, \
186  .formats_state = FF_FILTER_FORMATS_SINGLE_SAMPLEFMT
187 
188 #define FILTER_INOUTPADS(inout, array) \
189  .inout = array, \
190  .nb_ ## inout = FF_ARRAY_ELEMS(array)
191 #define FILTER_INPUTS(array) FILTER_INOUTPADS(inputs, (array))
192 #define FILTER_OUTPUTS(array) FILTER_INOUTPADS(outputs, (array))
193 
194 /**
195  * Tell if an integer is contained in the provided -1-terminated list of integers.
196  * This is useful for determining (for instance) if an AVPixelFormat is in an
197  * array of supported formats.
198  *
199  * @param fmt provided format
200  * @param fmts -1-terminated list of formats
201  * @return 1 if present, 0 if absent
202  */
203 int ff_fmt_is_in(int fmt, const int *fmts);
204 
205 /* Functions to parse audio format arguments */
206 
207 /**
208  * Parse a pixel format.
209  *
210  * @param ret pixel format pointer to where the value should be written
211  * @param arg string to parse
212  * @param log_ctx log context
213  * @return >= 0 in case of success, a negative AVERROR code on error
214  */
216 int ff_parse_pixel_format(enum AVPixelFormat *ret, const char *arg, void *log_ctx);
217 
218 /**
219  * Parse a sample rate.
220  *
221  * @param ret unsigned integer pointer to where the value should be written
222  * @param arg string to parse
223  * @param log_ctx log context
224  * @return >= 0 in case of success, a negative AVERROR code on error
225  */
227 int ff_parse_sample_rate(int *ret, const char *arg, void *log_ctx);
228 
229 /**
230  * Parse a channel layout or a corresponding integer representation.
231  *
232  * @param ret 64bit integer pointer to where the value should be written.
233  * @param nret integer pointer to the number of channels;
234  * if not NULL, then unknown channel layouts are accepted
235  * @param arg string to parse
236  * @param log_ctx log context
237  * @return >= 0 in case of success, a negative AVERROR code on error
238  */
240 int ff_parse_channel_layout(int64_t *ret, int *nret, const char *arg,
241  void *log_ctx);
242 
244 
245 /**
246  * Set the status field of a link from the source filter.
247  * The pts should reflect the timestamp of the status change,
248  * in link time base and relative to the frames timeline.
249  * In particular, for AVERROR_EOF, it should reflect the
250  * end time of the last frame.
251  */
253 
254 /**
255  * Set the status field of a link from the destination filter.
256  * The pts should probably be left unset (AV_NOPTS_VALUE).
257  */
259 
261 
262 #define D2TS(d) (isnan(d) ? AV_NOPTS_VALUE : (int64_t)(d))
263 #define TS2D(ts) ((ts) == AV_NOPTS_VALUE ? NAN : (double)(ts))
264 #define TS2T(ts, tb) ((ts) == AV_NOPTS_VALUE ? NAN : (double)(ts) * av_q2d(tb))
265 
266 /* misc trace functions */
267 
268 #define FF_TPRINTF_START(ctx, func) ff_tlog(NULL, "%-16s: ", #func)
269 
270 char *ff_get_ref_perms_string(char *buf, size_t buf_size, int perms);
271 
272 void ff_tlog_link(void *ctx, AVFilterLink *link, int end);
273 
274 /**
275  * Append a new input/output pad to the filter's list of such pads.
276  *
277  * The *_free_name versions will set the AVFILTERPAD_FLAG_FREE_NAME flag
278  * ensuring that the name will be freed generically (even on insertion error).
279  */
284 
285 /**
286  * Request an input frame from the filter at the other end of the link.
287  *
288  * This function must not be used by filters using the activate callback,
289  * use ff_link_set_frame_wanted() instead.
290  *
291  * The input filter may pass the request on to its inputs, fulfill the
292  * request from an internal buffer or any other means specific to its function.
293  *
294  * When the end of a stream is reached AVERROR_EOF is returned and no further
295  * frames are returned after that.
296  *
297  * When a filter is unable to output a frame for example due to its sources
298  * being unable to do so or because it depends on external means pushing data
299  * into it then AVERROR(EAGAIN) is returned.
300  * It is important that a AVERROR(EAGAIN) return is returned all the way to the
301  * caller (generally eventually a user application) as this step may (but does
302  * not have to be) necessary to provide the input with the next frame.
303  *
304  * If a request is successful then some progress has been made towards
305  * providing a frame on the link (through ff_filter_frame()). A filter that
306  * needs several frames to produce one is allowed to return success if one
307  * more frame has been processed but no output has been produced yet. A
308  * filter is also allowed to simply forward a success return value.
309  *
310  * @param link the input link
311  * @return zero on success
312  * AVERROR_EOF on end of file
313  * AVERROR(EAGAIN) if the previous filter cannot output a frame
314  * currently and can neither guarantee that EOF has been reached.
315  */
317 
318 #define AVFILTER_DEFINE_CLASS_EXT(name, desc, options) \
319  static const AVClass name##_class = { \
320  .class_name = desc, \
321  .item_name = av_default_item_name, \
322  .option = options, \
323  .version = LIBAVUTIL_VERSION_INT, \
324  .category = AV_CLASS_CATEGORY_FILTER, \
325  }
326 #define AVFILTER_DEFINE_CLASS(fname) \
327  AVFILTER_DEFINE_CLASS_EXT(fname, #fname, fname##_options)
328 
329 /**
330  * Find the index of a link.
331  *
332  * I.e. find i such that link == ctx->(in|out)puts[i]
333  */
334 #define FF_INLINK_IDX(link) ((int)((link)->dstpad - (link)->dst->input_pads))
335 #define FF_OUTLINK_IDX(link) ((int)((link)->srcpad - (link)->src->output_pads))
336 
337 /**
338  * Send a frame of data to the next filter.
339  *
340  * @param link the output link over which the data is being sent
341  * @param frame a reference to the buffer of data being sent. The
342  * receiving filter will free this reference when it no longer
343  * needs it or pass it on to the next filter.
344  *
345  * @return >= 0 on success, a negative AVERROR on error. The receiving filter
346  * is responsible for unreferencing frame in case of error.
347  */
349 
350 /**
351  * Allocate a new filter context and return it.
352  *
353  * @param filter what filter to create an instance of
354  * @param inst_name name to give to the new filter context
355  *
356  * @return newly created filter context or NULL on failure
357  */
358 AVFilterContext *ff_filter_alloc(const AVFilter *filter, const char *inst_name);
359 
361 
362 /**
363  * Remove a filter from a graph;
364  */
366 
367 /**
368  * The filter is aware of hardware frames, and any hardware frame context
369  * should not be automatically propagated through it.
370  */
371 #define FF_FILTER_FLAG_HWFRAME_AWARE (1 << 0)
372 
373 /**
374  * Run one round of processing on a filter graph.
375  */
377 
378 /**
379  * Get number of threads for current filter instance.
380  * This number is always same or less than graph->nb_threads.
381  */
383 
384 /**
385  * Generic processing of user supplied commands that are set
386  * in the same way as the filter options.
387  * NOTE: 'enable' option is handled separately, and not by
388  * this function.
389  */
390 int ff_filter_process_command(AVFilterContext *ctx, const char *cmd,
391  const char *arg, char *res, int res_len, int flags);
392 
393 /**
394  * Perform any additional setup required for hardware frames.
395  *
396  * link->hw_frames_ctx must be set before calling this function.
397  * Inside link->hw_frames_ctx, the fields format, sw_format, width and
398  * height must be set. If dynamically allocated pools are not supported,
399  * then initial_pool_size must also be set, to the minimum hardware frame
400  * pool size necessary for the filter to work (taking into account any
401  * frames which need to stored for use in operations as appropriate). If
402  * default_pool_size is nonzero, then it will be used as the pool size if
403  * no other modification takes place (this can be used to preserve
404  * compatibility).
405  */
407  int default_pool_size);
408 
409 #endif /* AVFILTER_INTERNAL_H */
func
int(* func)(AVBPrint *dst, const char *in, const char *arg)
Definition: jacosubdec.c:68
AVPixelFormat
AVPixelFormat
Pixel format.
Definition: pixfmt.h:64
status
they must not be accessed directly The fifo field contains the frames that are queued in the input for processing by the filter The status_in and status_out fields contains the queued status(EOF or error) of the link
ff_avfilter_graph_update_heap
void ff_avfilter_graph_update_heap(AVFilterGraph *graph, AVFilterLink *link)
Update the position of a link in the age heap.
Definition: avfiltergraph.c:1278
avfilter_action_func
int() avfilter_action_func(AVFilterContext *ctx, void *arg, int jobnr, int nb_jobs)
A function pointer passed to the AVFilterGraph::execute callback to be executed multiple times,...
Definition: avfilter.h:828
AVFilterGraphInternal::frame_queues
FFFrameQueueGlobal frame_queues
Definition: internal.h:136
ff_tlog_link
void ff_tlog_link(void *ctx, AVFilterLink *link, int end)
Definition: avfilter.c:396
graph
fg outputs[0] graph
Definition: ffmpeg_filter.c:174
AVFrame
This structure describes decoded (raw) audio or video data.
Definition: frame.h:303
ff_append_outpad
int ff_append_outpad(AVFilterContext *f, AVFilterPad *p)
Definition: avfilter.c:150
w
uint8_t w
Definition: llviddspenc.c:38
AVFilterGraphInternal
Definition: internal.h:133
filter
filter_frame For filters that do not use the this method is called when a frame is pushed to the filter s input It can be called at any time except in a reentrant way If the input frame is enough to produce then the filter should push the output frames on the output link immediately As an exception to the previous rule if the input frame is enough to produce several output frames then the filter needs output only at least one per link The additional frames can be left buffered in the filter
Definition: filter_design.txt:228
av_pure
#define av_pure
Definition: attributes.h:78
ff_request_frame
int ff_request_frame(AVFilterLink *link)
Request an input frame from the filter at the other end of the link.
Definition: avfilter.c:420
video.h
ff_avfilter_link_set_in_status
void ff_avfilter_link_set_in_status(AVFilterLink *link, int status, int64_t pts)
Set the status field of a link from the source filter.
Definition: avfilter.c:229
FF_FILTER_FORMATS_SAMPLEFMTS_LIST
@ FF_FILTER_FORMATS_SAMPLEFMTS_LIST
formats.samples_list active.
Definition: internal.h:163
formats.h
AVFilterGraphInternal::thread
void * thread
Definition: internal.h:134
ff_filter_alloc
AVFilterContext * ff_filter_alloc(const AVFilter *filter, const char *inst_name)
Allocate a new filter context and return it.
Definition: avfilter.c:662
AVFilterCommand::flags
int flags
Definition: internal.h:38
ff_filter_activate
int ff_filter_activate(AVFilterContext *filter)
Definition: avfilter.c:1356
pts
static int64_t pts
Definition: transcode_aac.c:653
AVFilterPad
A filter pad used for either input or output.
Definition: internal.h:50
AVFilterPad::request_frame
int(* request_frame)(AVFilterLink *link)
Frame request callback.
Definition: internal.h:114
FF_FILTER_FORMATS_SINGLE_SAMPLEFMT
@ FF_FILTER_FORMATS_SINGLE_SAMPLEFMT
formats.sample_fmt active.
Definition: internal.h:165
FFFrameQueueGlobal
Structure to hold global options and statistics for frame queues.
Definition: framequeue.h:46
ff_avfilter_link_set_out_status
void ff_avfilter_link_set_out_status(AVFilterLink *link, int status, int64_t pts)
Set the status field of a link from the destination filter.
Definition: avfilter.c:242
ff_filter_init_hw_frames
int ff_filter_init_hw_frames(AVFilterContext *avctx, AVFilterLink *link, int default_pool_size)
Perform any additional setup required for hardware frames.
Definition: avfilter.c:1567
ctx
AVFormatContext * ctx
Definition: movenc.c:48
ff_filter_process_command
int ff_filter_process_command(AVFilterContext *ctx, const char *cmd, const char *arg, char *res, int res_len, int flags)
Generic processing of user supplied commands that are set in the same way as the filter options.
Definition: avfilter.c:882
ff_command_queue_pop
void ff_command_queue_pop(AVFilterContext *filter)
Definition: avfilter.c:94
ff_fmt_is_in
int ff_fmt_is_in(int fmt, const int *fmts)
Tell if an integer is contained in the provided -1-terminated list of integers.
Definition: formats.c:352
ff_parse_channel_layout
av_warn_unused_result int ff_parse_channel_layout(int64_t *ret, int *nret, const char *arg, void *log_ctx)
Parse a channel layout or a corresponding integer representation.
Definition: formats.c:789
f
#define f(width, name)
Definition: cbs_vp9.c:255
link
Filter the word “frame” indicates either a video frame or a group of audio as stored in an AVFrame structure Format for each input and each output the list of supported formats For video that means pixel format For audio that means channel sample they are references to shared objects When the negotiation mechanism computes the intersection of the formats supported at each end of a link
Definition: filter_design.txt:23
arg
const char * arg
Definition: jacosubdec.c:67
ff_filter_graph_remove_filter
void ff_filter_graph_remove_filter(AVFilterGraph *graph, AVFilterContext *filter)
Remove a filter from a graph;.
Definition: avfiltergraph.c:103
ff_parse_pixel_format
av_warn_unused_result int ff_parse_pixel_format(enum AVPixelFormat *ret, const char *arg, void *log_ctx)
Parse a pixel format.
Definition: formats.c:762
framequeue.h
AVFilterInternal
Definition: internal.h:139
ff_update_link_current_pts
void ff_update_link_current_pts(AVFilterLink *link, int64_t pts)
Definition: avfilter.c:541
AVFilterPad::filter_frame
int(* filter_frame)(AVFilterLink *link, AVFrame *frame)
Filtering callback.
Definition: internal.h:105
AVFilterGraph
Definition: avfilter.h:845
AVFilterPad::config_props
int(* config_props)(AVFilterLink *link)
Link configuration callback.
Definition: internal.h:130
AVFilterPad::get_buffer
union AVFilterPad::@208 get_buffer
Callback functions to get a video/audio buffers.
AVMediaType
AVMediaType
Definition: avutil.h:199
ff_append_outpad_free_name
int ff_append_outpad_free_name(AVFilterContext *f, AVFilterPad *p)
Definition: avfilter.c:155
avfilter_execute_func
int() avfilter_execute_func(AVFilterContext *ctx, avfilter_action_func *func, void *arg, int *ret, int nb_jobs)
A function executing multiple jobs, possibly in parallel.
Definition: avfilter.h:842
AVFilterCommand::next
struct AVFilterCommand * next
Definition: internal.h:39
AVFilterGraphInternal::thread_execute
avfilter_execute_func * thread_execute
Definition: internal.h:135
ff_filter_graph_run_once
int ff_filter_graph_run_once(AVFilterGraph *graph)
Run one round of processing on a filter graph.
Definition: avfiltergraph.c:1329
av_warn_unused_result
#define av_warn_unused_result
Definition: attributes.h:64
ff_parse_sample_rate
av_warn_unused_result int ff_parse_sample_rate(int *ret, const char *arg, void *log_ctx)
Parse a sample rate.
Definition: formats.c:777
FilterFormatsState
FilterFormatsState
Definition: internal.h:149
internal.h
FF_FILTER_FORMATS_PASSTHROUGH
@ FF_FILTER_FORMATS_PASSTHROUGH
The default value meaning that this filter supports all formats and (for audio) sample rates and chan...
Definition: internal.h:160
AVFilterCommand
Definition: internal.h:34
av_always_inline
#define av_always_inline
Definition: attributes.h:49
AVFilterPad::flags
int flags
A combination of AVFILTERPAD_FLAG_* flags.
Definition: internal.h:79
AVFilterPad::name
const char * name
Pad name.
Definition: internal.h:56
AVFilter
Filter definition.
Definition: avfilter.h:149
ret
ret
Definition: filter_design.txt:187
AVFilterPad::type
enum AVMediaType type
AVFilterPad type.
Definition: internal.h:61
frame
these buffered frames must be flushed immediately if a new input produces new the filter must not call request_frame to get more It must just process the frame or queue it The task of requesting more frames is left to the filter s request_frame method or the application If a filter has several the filter must be ready for frames arriving randomly on any input any filter with several inputs will most likely require some kind of queuing mechanism It is perfectly acceptable to have a limited queue and to drop frames when the inputs are too unbalanced request_frame For filters that do not use the this method is called when a frame is wanted on an output For a it should directly call filter_frame on the corresponding output For a if there are queued frames already one of these frames should be pushed If the filter should request a frame on one of its repeatedly until at least one frame has been pushed Return or at least make progress towards producing a frame
Definition: filter_design.txt:264
ff_append_inpad_free_name
int ff_append_inpad_free_name(AVFilterContext *f, AVFilterPad *p)
Definition: avfilter.c:144
AVFilterInternal::execute
avfilter_execute_func * execute
Definition: internal.h:140
ff_filter_frame
int ff_filter_frame(AVFilterLink *link, AVFrame *frame)
Send a frame of data to the next filter.
Definition: avfilter.c:1018
avfilter.h
version.h
AVFilterCommand::command
char * command
command
Definition: internal.h:36
AVFilterCommand::arg
char * arg
optional argument for the command
Definition: internal.h:37
AVFilterContext
An instance of a filter.
Definition: avfilter.h:386
FF_FILTER_FORMATS_PIXFMT_LIST
@ FF_FILTER_FORMATS_PIXFMT_LIST
formats.pixels_list active.
Definition: internal.h:162
ff_append_inpad
int ff_append_inpad(AVFilterContext *f, AVFilterPad *p)
Append a new input/output pad to the filter's list of such pads.
Definition: avfilter.c:139
FF_FILTER_FORMATS_QUERY_FUNC
@ FF_FILTER_FORMATS_QUERY_FUNC
formats.query active.
Definition: internal.h:161
flags
#define flags(name, subs,...)
Definition: cbs_av1.c:561
h
h
Definition: vp9dsp_template.c:2038
ff_get_ref_perms_string
char * ff_get_ref_perms_string(char *buf, size_t buf_size, int perms)
ff_filter_execute
static av_always_inline int ff_filter_execute(AVFilterContext *ctx, avfilter_action_func *func, void *arg, int *ret, int nb_jobs)
Definition: internal.h:143
int
int
Definition: ffmpeg_filter.c:156
FF_FILTER_FORMATS_SINGLE_PIXFMT
@ FF_FILTER_FORMATS_SINGLE_PIXFMT
formats.pix_fmt active
Definition: internal.h:164
ff_filter_get_nb_threads
int ff_filter_get_nb_threads(AVFilterContext *ctx) av_pure
Get number of threads for current filter instance.
Definition: avfilter.c:803
AVFilterCommand::time
double time
time expressed in seconds
Definition: internal.h:35